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Thread: Ion-exchange Softener for good skin?

  1. #91
    Honmei ricshaw's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
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    Southern California
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    Before The Water Planet Company said:
    Alkalinity buffering equation
    H20 + CO2 <> H2CO3 <> HCO3 + H+ <> CO3 + 2H+
    Nitrification equations
    NH4+ + 1.5O2 > 2H+ + 2H2O + NO2-
    NO2- + 0.5O2 > NO3-
    NH4+ + 1.83 O2 + 1.98 HCO3- > 0.021 C5H702N + 0.98 NO3- + 1.041 H2O + 1.88 H2CO3-
    NH4+ + 1.9O2 + 2HCO3- > 1.9 CO2 + 2.9 H2O + 0.1 CH2
    From the above equations, it can be calculated that for every pound of ammonia oxidized to nitrate, the following occurs:
    4.18 pounds of oxygen are consumed
    7.14 pounds of alkalinity as calcium carbonate (as CaCO3) is consumed
    12 pounds of alkalinity as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is consumed
    They said;

    The nitrification process produces acid.
    This acid formation lowers the pH of the biological population in the aeration tank and, because it is toxic to nitrifiers, can cause a reduction of the growth rate of nitrifying bacteria. The optimum pH for Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter is between 7.5 and 8.5; however most treatment plants are able to effectively nitrify with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. Nitrification stops at a pH below 6.0. The nitrification reaction (that is, the conversion of ammonia to nitrate) consumes 7.1 mg/L of alkalinity (as CaCO3) for each mg/L of ammonia nitrogen oxidized. An alkalinity of no less than 50-100 mg/L in the aeration tank is generally required to insure adequate buffering.
    Isn't that kind of what Mike said?

  2. #92
    Tategoi hewhoisatpeace's Avatar
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    Oct 2010
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    Pendleton, SC
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    331
    Not quite. They said that you need the alkalinity to buffer the pH, we know that. But, it doesn't change the stoichiometric calculation's demand for carbonate to complete the equation. As I understand it, the buffering of the pH to keep the water stable and allow the process to occur is a separate and unrelated event from the requirement for carbonate ions in the nitrification reaction.

    Again, I'm just saying this is how I understand the equation, not that my understanding of it is accurate. I guess it is a question for a chemist to interpret properly (I was not the best chemistry student).
    Will Schultze
    (931) 338-6174



  3. #93
    Tosai
    Join Date
    Jul 2009
    Location
    Perth Western Australia
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    49
    I removed this reply because it seemed to have stopped the flow.

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