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Thread: UK KHV vaccine trials . . .

  1. #1
    Honmei KoiCop's Avatar
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    UK KHV vaccine trials . . .

    Henderson Morley reports successful KHV vaccine trials

    13 August 2009

    Henderson Morley, the biotechnology company, has announced that field studies of the Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) Vaccine has produced positive results. In two of the vaccine groups 96% and 93% of the vaccinated fish survived the study and remained healthy.

    KHV is a serious viral infection that infects all species of carp, including the high value and in-bred ornamental fish, Koi carp.

    Eight different vaccine candidates were studied. Ten groups of Koi carp were held in isolated tanks each with individual water supplies, of which eight groups were vaccinated with candidate vaccines. One group received no vaccine (negative control), and another group were survivors of prior KHV infection, (positive controls).

    The unvaccinated negative control group died from KHV infection, as did the fish in some of the unsuccessful low dose vaccine groups. In two of the vaccine groups, 96% and 93% of the vaccinated fish survived, and remained healthy following the virus challenge and for the month following the virus challenge. Other vaccine groups had 76% and 79% survival; however these candidates are not being selected for further development.

    The two successful vaccine candidates are now being developed further with a view to presenting these candidates to Schering Plough Animal Health under the terms of the development and option to license agreement as soon as possible.

    Chairman Andrew Knight commented:

    'We are extremely pleased with the results of this study which demonstrate a level of efficacy for our vaccine technology and reinforces our decision to transform Henderson Morley into a pure play vaccine company by 2011. We look forward to bringing further news on this exciting development in due course. '
    Source: SmallCapNews | Henderson Morley reports successful KHV vaccine trials
    Don Chandler
    Member: AKCA, ZNA, KoiUSA

  2. #2
    Oyagoi
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    Live attenuated or dead vaccine?

    End of koi as we know it.

    Brett

  3. #3
    Oyagoi mrbradleybradley's Avatar
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    Any vaccine, with any level of success will mean KHV becomes a reason without the serious treatment of any objection to use of the virus as a biological control on feral carp. That will be a sad day and a disaster for the Australian hobby.

  4. #4
    Daihonmei PapaBear's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Fishbreeder View Post
    Live attenuated or dead vaccine?

    End of koi as we know it.

    Brett
    They ain't sayin'. Playing their cards close to the vest for now I guess...

  5. #5
    Daihonmei MikeM's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Fishbreeder View Post

    End of koi as we know it.

    Brett
    Many will not understand your comment, Brett.

    The concern regarding vaccination is that it will lead to a lack of caution in bio-security, and make identification of KHV-carriers impossible due to the inability to distinguish a carrier from a vaccinated koi. Unless the vaccine is very cheap and simple to administer to a vast volume of fish of small size, KHV carriers would proliferate and result in frequent mass wipe-outs. Alternatively, the price of any koi would skyrocket beyond the demand curve. Imagine a breeder whose costs increase even $1 per koi for each of the hundreds of thousands of fry produced in each spawning. The high-end of the hobby cannot support the economics of the whole industry. There is also the concern that the immunity provided by vaccination decreases with time. The vaccinated koi may become susceptible after a few years. And, there is the concern that a live virus vaccine (typically the most effective) will lead to reversion to an active virus, with vaccinated koi becoming carriers.

    On the other hand, if the vaccine is costly, it will be administered only to high-end koi as an extra level of protection of one's 'investment'. [Yes, JR, I know it is a continuously declining investment as the fish ages.] Prevention would remain the primary focus for the industry.

    Brett has so much experience in aquaculture and with fish diseases involving vaccination that I think his view has to be given credence. At the same time, it seems to me that vaccination can be a very helpful tool when combined with a primary focus on prevention through bio-security. A large proportion of the 'high-end' market is composed of individuals who will spend thousands on one fish, but only on one or two over a period of several years. These marginal members of the 'high-end' market are inhibited by KHV concerns, but they are essential to breeders making the investment of resources in producing such koi. Without such effort, koi will decline precipitously in quality.

    So, I see an effective vaccine as useful in maintaining the continual investment in elevating the quality of koi. I also see prevention through bio-security as the essential main focus for the foundation of koikeeping.

    What bothers me most is the idea that a pond of survivor carriers will be kept alive by a soft-hearted koikeeper who decides that they can continue acquiring fish as long as the new ones are vaccinated. This sort of thinking would lead to sources of infection dotting every community. I think most who euthanize their survivors now do so more out of concern that they cannot acquire new, better koi unless they do so, and not because of a concern for the welfare of other people's koi.

  6. #6
    Daihonmei PapaBear's Avatar
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    And that really is the rub isn't it.

    KHV is just like any other communicable disease. Personal BEHAVIOR is the number one culprit and vaccine's can promote a false sense of security. If a truly effective vaccine is ever proven safe how can it ever be tracked without massive investment on the part of breeders, dealers, and hobbyists throughout the life of each and every fish? A simple method of delivery via food and/or water would be a must for it to make any economic sense, and simple INEXPENSIVE testing that knows the difference between a vaccinated Koi and an infected one would have to be developed.

    That sounds like a pretty tricky alignment of the planets to me...
    Larry Iles
    Oklahoma

  7. #7
    Daihonmei MikeM's Avatar
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    Ready to microchip every koi for its vaccination status?

  8. #8
    Fry
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    It might help to see the whole news release. The HML vaccine does not contain any live virus and thus in contrast to the Isreali Magnoy vaccine, you are not risking introducing the virus into otherwise clean pond or lake. Especially important if the KHV virus strain were to mutate !

    The Board of Henderson Morley, the AIM quoted biotechnology company, is pleased to announce the results of the Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) Vaccine field studies that have now been completed in a sub-contract research facility.

    Highlights
    * Henderson Morley's KHV vaccine field study has produced positive results
    * In two of the vaccine groups 96% and 93% of the vaccinated fish survived the study and remained healthy

    * Two successful vaccine candidates are now being developed further with a view to presenting these candidates to Schering Plough Animal Health

    * KHV disease is classed as a 'Notifiable-Disease' by the World Organisation of Animal Health. KHV is therefore a pathogen of growing economic and environmental importance


    About the Study
    In this study, eight different vaccine candidates were studied. These candidates were formulated to examine the effects of different doses of vaccine, addition of purified virus particles, formulation of candidates with different adjuvants (components of the vaccine that boost immune responses), and different combinations of adjuvants. Adjuvants, that the Directors believe, have never been used in fish vaccines before, were also examined.

    Ten groups of Koi carp were held in isolated tanks each with individual water supplies, of which eight groups were vaccinated with candidate vaccines. One group received no vaccine (negative control), and another group were survivors of prior KHV infection, (positive controls).

    Results
    The unvaccinated negative control group died from KHV infection, as did the fish in some of the unsuccessful low dose vaccine groups. The Board is very pleased that in two of the vaccine groups, 96% and 93% of the vaccinated fish survived, and remained healthy following the virus challenge and for the month following the virus challenge. Other vaccine groups had 76% and 79% survival; however these candidates are not being selected for further development.

    Vaccine Candidates
    The candidates used in this study utilise inactivated virus, so pose no threat of infection either to the vaccinated fish or other fish in the same tank or pond. The candidates comprises proprietary methods and techniques developed in-house at the Birmingham (UK) laboratories and do not have PREPS or L-particles in their manufacture. New patents are in preparation to protect the current lead candidates.

    KHV
    KHV is a serious viral infection that infects all species of carp, including the high value and in-bred ornamental fish, Koi carp. The virus was first isolated in 1996, and has now been detected in over 20 countries. Consequently, in 2006 the World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE) gave KHV disease 'Notifiable Disease' status. As a Notifiable Disease there is a legal obligation
    to report any suspicion of a clinical outbreak of Koi Herpes Virus disease to the Fish Health Inspectorate (FHI).KHV is therefore a pathogen of growing economic and environmental importance.

    A single fish infected by KHV may rapidly spread the disease and this often kills between 90% and 100% of fish in the infected pond or tank, with the potential to devastate entire fish farms. The virus is temperature sensitive and is mainly active in warm weather conditions. There is currently no available anti-viral treatment or vaccine licensed in the EU, US or Japan.

    A particular problem with KHV, which is similar to other herpes viruses in humans and animals, is the ability to cause latent infection. Once a fish has been infected, or exposed to the live virus, the infection may recur (usually in response to stressors such as high water temperature), without further exposure to the virus. Once infected, fish may also shed the virus into a pond, even in the absence of symptoms.

    Live virus challenge
    Approximately two months after receiving the vaccines (to allow the fish to develop immune responses), fish were challenged with live Koi Herpes virus that had been characterised by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a technique used in molecular biology for creating multiple copies of DNA from a sample which results in a very accurate diagnosis and typing of virus infections.

    Further development
    The two successful vaccine candidates are now being developed further with a view to presenting these candidates to Schering Plough Animal Health under the terms of the development and option to license agreement as soon as possible.

    Chairman Andrew Knight commented "We are extremely pleased with the results of this study which demonstrate a level of efficacy for our vaccine technology and reinforces our decision to transform Henderson Morley into a pure play vaccine company by 2011. We look forward to bringing further news on this exciting development in due course. "

  9. #9
    Honmei KoiCop's Avatar
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    Hello nss . . .

    Thank you for posting the expanded press release which has answered several questions.

    Would appear that only time will answer the balance of them.

    Best wishes,

  10. #10
    Oyagoi RayJordan's Avatar
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    There are a number of vaccine research studies being conducted around the world. I am especially intrigued by the studies being done in Japan using a special type of delivery system in combination with a oral vaccine. It is likely that availablity of a safe and effective vaccine for KHV is still many years away.

    While waiting for a vaccine better understanding how to detect "KHV carriers" via improved techniques of quarantine and better/easier testing methods can improve our abilities to protect our koi collections.

    In the end a combined approach of better husbantry/bio-security practices at breeder facilities and dealers plus better testing, quaratine practices, and yes eventually safe and effective vaccines will gain control over this terrible disease.

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