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Thread: Koi spawning demonstration videos

  1. #1
    Nisai
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    Koi spawning demonstration videos

    Recently we posted several demonstration videos on koi spawning at YouTube. These videos are part of online course Fish Reproduction which is offered by Kentucky State University Aquaculture Program. I presume that these videos will be interesting for some forum users.

    Here are the links:
    Video 1: Selection of Fish for Spawning
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7nbAARMHr68

    Video 2: Hormonal Injection
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJ96U1tppsk


    Video 3: Artificial Fertilization of Eggs
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP1_WxznMIc

    Video 4: Development of Embryos and Larvae
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yGlRyh1JXEI

    Playlist from where you can go to any of 4 videos
    http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLI2Wd3VFTYkNTOW3upWRxKFK3cnq1TBZ5

    Please note that these demonstration videos are supplemental learning materials to lectures and other tutorials. Therefore they do not contain complete information on the subjects. For example, I do not provide in videos the dosage of hormonal injection or type and concentration of used anesthetic; do not provide calculation of injection volume for every fish. You can post your questions on forum and I will provide additional information.

    BorG




  2. #2
    Jumbo RobF's Avatar
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    BorG,

    Excellent insights into the reality of koi mass production, investigation and genetics. Maybe the best part is to put a face and voice with your moniker!

    Additional videos are welcome.

    I do have a question that video 4 prompts. Koi larvae are unpigmented (except for the eye). Koi are often characterized as being either “white based” (kohaku/sanke) or “black based (showa/shiro utsuri)”. Do you see these two categories in the fry produced in your lab? When does the distinction appear? What does it say about skin structure (chromatophores in various layers)?

    Rob

  3. #3
    Honmei ricshaw's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by RobF View Post
    BorG,
    Excellent insights into the reality of koi mass production, investigation and genetics. Maybe the best part is to put a face and voice with your moniker!
    Additional videos are welcome.
    I do have a question that video 4 prompts. Koi larvae are unpigmented (except for the eye). Koi are often characterized as being either “white based” (kohaku/sanke) or “black based (showa/shiro utsuri)”. Do you see these two categories in the fry produced in your lab? When does the distinction appear? What does it say about skin structure (chromatophores in various layers)?
    Rob
    I think there is a difference between Koi larvae and Koi fry.

  4. #4
    Daihonmei MikeM's Avatar
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    Thank you for posting these links, Boris. I'll admit that I had difficulty understanding you at first, but after a while my ear adjusted to the cadence and accent. Folks looking at the videos should give it some time.

    I had not seen a feather used for the stirring before. It certainly worked perfectly. Oh, my arm and wrist would be so tired I'd surely stop too soon.

    The koi are handled more roughly than would occur on a koi farm where oyagoi are prized, but the expression of eggs conforms to what I've seen in short video snippets from Japan. It is easy to understand how there can be internal injuries and why some Japanese breeders only go with natural spawnings despite lower productivity.

    And, so many fry in those beekers! It really brings home how productive koi can be and why repeated selection is necessary to produce show-worthy fish.

  5. #5
    Nisai
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    Quote Originally Posted by RobF View Post
    BorG,

    Excellent insights into the reality of koi mass production, investigation and genetics. Maybe the best part is to put a face and voice with your moniker!

    Additional videos are welcome.

    I do have a question that video 4 prompts. Koi larvae are unpigmented (except for the eye). Koi are often characterized as being either “white based” (kohaku/sanke) or “black based (showa/shiro utsuri)”. Do you see these two categories in the fry produced in your lab? When does the distinction appear? What does it say about skin structure (chromatophores in various layers)?

    Rob
    Thanks Rob. I have observed development of melanin in case of Bekko type of black patches. From the beginning hatched and swim-up larvae in progenies from crosses, for example, kohaku with sanke or shiro-bekko are the same. They are transparent, no melanin besides eyes. But later, in about7-12 days, some larvae became grey and develop melanin while some remain being yellowish.Grey larvae later develop black patches and become sanke or bekko while yellowish larvae become kohaku or solid white/ solid red. I have not observed development of melanin in case of Utsuri type of black patches (although I plan to do it) but according to literature data in this case hatched larvae already have melanin (the same as wild-type color carp). So, there is large difference in development of melanin at early stages between “white based” and “black based” fish.

    BorG

  6. #6
    Nisai
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    Quote Originally Posted by MikeM View Post
    Thank you for posting these links, Boris. I'll admit that I had difficulty understanding you at first, but after a while my ear adjusted to the cadence and accent. Folks looking at the videos should give it some time.

    I had not seen a feather used for the stirring before. It certainly worked perfectly. Oh, my arm and wrist would be so tired I'd surely stop too soon.

    The koi are handled more roughly than would occur on a koi farm where oyagoi are prized, but the expression of eggs conforms to what I've seen in short video snippets from Japan. It is easy to understand how there can be internal injuries and why some Japanese breeders only go with natural spawnings despite lower productivity.

    And, so many fry in those beekers! It really brings home how productive koi can be and why repeated selection is necessary to produce show-worthy fish.
    MikeM,
    Stirring of eggs is pretty tedious procedure. But main problem is manpower. Each person can stir eggs in two bowls maximum (with both hands). Sometimes there is need to perform many crosses at short period of time and more and more people are needed to help. There is another method. After several minutes of stirring eggs in milk suspension in bowl they are placed in McDonald jar and stirred there by air supplied from compressor.

    I can agree that described in videos method of artificial spawning is more stressful for fish parents than natural spawning. But it is more controlled procedure especially if there is need to perform individual crosses (one female x one male). After spawning in hatchery we put fish back to earthen ponds and do not observe any mortality later. The most stressful part is hormonal injection. I have seen video from Japan at YouTube that they stripped eggs from females after (or during) natural spawning in tanks (no injection was used).

    For spawning in hatchery I try to use small and middle-size females with good developed, profound abdomen and to avoid very large females. It is more difficult to handle them and a lot of hormone is needed. Also frequently very large females produce much less eggs than could beexpected based on their weight. I remember that you noted at other forum thread that frequently grand champions are poor oyagoi. It is not surprising to me. In strong desire to raise very large fish for shows slow maturing fish and/or fish with undeveloped ovaries (GCs are usually females – right?) are selected.
    BorG

  7. #7
    Oyagoi dizzyfish's Avatar
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    Very interesting video BorG. How long do you wait after the hormone injection before you begin to strip the eggs. It looks like the fish were not knocked out when the hormone injection was being given........ is that correct? I'm also interested in knowing what type of anesthetic you use and what the dosage is for the stripping. The koi seem to be be really knocked out cold when the eggs are stripped. Do they recover quickly and do you need to move them around? I hope I didn't miss you explanation of any of the above.
    Mitch

  8. #8
    Nisai
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    Quote Originally Posted by dizzyfish View Post
    Very interesting video BorG. How long do you wait after the hormone injection before you begin to strip the eggs. It looks like the fish were not knocked out when the hormone injection was being given........ is that correct? I'm also interested in knowing what type of anesthetic you use and what the dosage is for the stripping. The koi seem to be be really knocked out cold when the eggs are stripped. Do they recover quickly and do you need to move them around? I hope I didn't miss you explanation of any of the above.
    Mitch
    Mitch,
    Here are answers to your questions:
    - In video 2 the first (preliminary) injection to females is shown. I give first injection at about 9 am; second (resolving) injection to females at 9 pm. The latency period (time between resolving injection and ovulation of eggs) depends on temperature. I try to keep temperature at about 21.5-22 degree C. In this case at 8 am next day (that is after 11 hours) females are ready to be stripped. I inject males at about 4 pm (that is between 1st and 2nd injections to females).

    - Yes, I do not anesthetize fish for injection. It is better to keep them mostly in water during injection (see photo below) and important not to hold fish too tight, especially not to prevent gill covers free movement.

    - I use anesthetic MS-222 (tricaine); we buy it from Argent laboratories http://www.argent-labs.com/ . Used concentration is about 150-170 mg/L; so we weigh 8 gram for about 50 liters of water. During stripping of eggs or sperm fish are completely moveless. They recover quickly and without any problems later.

    By the way in the video bottle with Carp Pituitary Extract from Sigma is shown. Currently we use CPE from Argent laboratories also. It is much cheaper than from Sigma.
    BorG
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Koi spawning demonstration videos-injection.jpg  

  9. #9
    Oyagoi Eugeneg's Avatar
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    The koi are handled more roughly than would occur on a koi farm where oyagoi are prized, but the expression of eggs conforms to what I've seen in short video snippets from Japan. It is easy to understand how there can be internal injuries and why some Japanese breeders only go with natural spawnings despite lower productivity.

    very good point I asked Daisuke what they did at the Momotaro farm and he told me that they would never strip their Oyagoi and it was done at mass production farms. They can produce far more fry than the fry ponds can sustain or they can cull several times. Besides that their oyagoi were far to valuble to take the risk.
    Regards
    Eugene

  10. #10
    Oyagoi dizzyfish's Avatar
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    Thanks Borg. I can see how this is a useful technique. You can use one female and two males.....segregate half the eggs with milt from one male and the other half with milt from the second male and raise them in different ponds to learn which male produced the best results. Something that would not be possible using two males and natural spawning.
    Mitch

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