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Thread: Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens

  1. #1
    Tosai Alexandre's Avatar
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    Exclamation Emergent pathogenic bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens

    Hi,
    I’m here because I have a problem with my SFF sanke. She has a bacterial infection since one month.

    History :
    In only one day many scales of the koi had begun to rise and turned red. We saw that it was a very aggressive bacteria so we brought the koi to the vet. He used convenia as a first treatment but the koi was getting even worse. Many other scales got damaged, so we returned to the vet and after we used an other antibiotic named Marbocyl (looks like Baytril). Off course we have always desinfected the damaged parts of the koi with iodine, propolis, etc...
    But once again, no improvement and the koi injured itself and accidently broke one of it’s pectoral fin. We brought it again to the vet and he repaired the fin with stitches and superglue to help the healing process.
    Two weeks later the koi got a septicemia and ulcers were appearing ; we brought her for the fourth time to the vet and he made a sample. He also gave us for the koi a new and more powerfull antibiotic named Florkem.
    A few days later, the resuts of the sample arrived. The germ clearly spotted is an emergent and exceptionnaly resistant bacteria (Gram negative, facultative anaerobe) named Shewanella putrefaciens . Florkem is one of the only antibiotics effective against it.

    Conclusion :
    I wanted to prevent and/or ask to the community if someone knows this special bacteria and had already found an effective way to overcome this germ (I’m thinking to Ozon).
    We are afraid because we think that the bacteria comes from the water supply (the bacteria was deferred to authorities because it’s very unusual). Plus, this germ comes normally from the marine environment. Some river carps have already died from this bacterium in the UK.
    It has also many other properties : For example,It is a metal reducing , and this quality contributes to it’s ability to be used in biotechnology (fuel cells especially).

    The koi :
    Currently, the koi is still alive but has lost many scales (15 white scales and 2 red scales), I hope that we will find a way to definetly destroy this dangerous bacteria. The carp is actually in a 3m3 heated (24°C) quarantine tank. The water is salted(2,9 g/l) and also treated with Melaleuca and Medopond+ (methylene blue+malachite green). Sometimes we put acclipond (vitamins).
    Every day, the carp has an antibiotic injection and is desinfected (sometimes we do a furapond bath). But the other problem is that the antibiotic made it lose the appetite.
    I hope that my lovely koi will survived and if it’s possible without sequels or too many scars.
    The other fishes are still fine in their pond. The other parameters of the water quality are Ok (no nitrites, good ph, etc…)

  2. #2
    Daihonmei MikeM's Avatar
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    I am not familiar with this pathogen and will need to read up on it. I can only comment on the other aspects of the quarantine. The use of methylene blue and malachite green should certainly control external bacterial infection. However, I would not want to keep the koi in that treatment more than one week unless signs of external infection remain present. The use of antibiotics, particularly strong ones, can take away the appetite. Internal infection also affects the appetite. Being in a strange, small habitat also affects appetite. So, I am not surprised she is not interested in eating. I do not believe the melaleuca does any good, but it does no harm either. A low salt level can be beneficial, so I would continue that at a 0.2% level. I am not certain what Furopond is. I think it is mainly for external fungus infection?? If so, I would not use unless fungus is present. Carp are strong fish. Their natural immune system will work best in clean, high quality water. So, I would focus on having the best possible water quality, performing daily water changes while completing the series of antibiotic injections.

    BTW, you are very fortunate to have a vet who cares for koi. There are not many anyplace in the world.
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  3. #3
    Tosai Alexandre's Avatar
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    Hi Mike,


    Here are some pictures of my koi during it's daily treatment (antibiotic, iodine, propolis, etc...). Plus, we did a potassium permanganate bath.
    So the pink color of the water and the yellowing of the dead skins is normal. We also changed a part of the water.

    BTW, furapond is an antibiotic (nifuripinol) for 30min. bath (it stays in the fish). it's made by JBL.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-20160416_185017_001.jpg   Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-20160416_184824_002.jpg   Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-20160416_184818_008.jpg   Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-20160416_184812_002.jpg   Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-20160416_191416.jpg  


  4. #4
    Oyagoi Eugeneg's Avatar
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    It is either caused by water or food. After spending $2000 on vet bills we lost our 7 year old golden retriever .
    Because of a class action law suite against Costco we learned that the food was contaminated with Salmonella.
    Regards
    Eugene
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  5. #5
    Daihonmei MikeM's Avatar
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    I have spent considerable time surfing around the internet looking for solid information on this bacteria. There is a lot around, but thus far I have not been able to get anything approaching a complete sense of it in connection with carp or fish in general. Much of the research on it has been in wholly unrelated fields, particularly in relation to its interaction with various metals. What is clear, however, is that Shewanella putrefaciens is omnipresent and does well in cool waters. There is much reason to believe that in the past infections attributed to Pseudomonas species were actually Shewanella, which was classified as a Psuedomonas at one time. Perhaps some of those especially difficult infections attributed to Pseudomonas/Aeromonas by hobbyists were actually Shewanella. Not many hobbyists go to the length that Alexandre has gone to identify the specific culprit. We tend to assume Aeromonas/Pseudomonas is involved because those are the pathogens mostly mentioned in koi literature. A nice little overview of S. putrefasciens appears on the microbewiki:

    "Introduction

    Shewanella putrefaciens is a bacteria that is found mainly in marine environments. It is a gram negative bacteria, meaning it does not dye during gram staining, which usually indicates a stronger antibiotic resistance. It is also a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can undergo aerobic respiration when oxygen is present, and can reduce iron and magnesium metabolically. Because of this Shewanella putrefaciens can reduce Uranium and create uranium deposits (fredrickson). Sheweanella putrefaciens grows quickly on both solid and liquid media and is recognizable for its pink color. Shewanella putrefaciens was first isolated from dairy products in 1931 by Derby and Hammer. It is classified as an Achromobacter and later named by MacDonell and Colwell in 1985 (McNair).


    Effect on Marine Life

    Shewanella putrefaciens can be found in freshwater, brackish, and salt water ecosystems. Many healthy marines animals are contaminated with Shewanella putrefaciens only to have it be realized when food caught by seafood industries spoils due to the bacterias presence. In freshwater animals, and in particular fish species of trout, the bacteria has been shown to cause disease. The effect of the bacteria is seen through external lesions and visible bacterial colonies. Fatality from Shewanella Putrefaciens usually only occurs if the fish are already in poor health, under environmental stress or a whole body inner infection occurs that impedes organ function (Fisheries). Most research done on Shewanella putrefaciens in relation to marine life concentrates on the prevention of bacterial outbreaks in fisheries. Much of the problem in prevention comes from Shewanella's tendency to become a contaminant or saprophyte, meaning it is often found living among other bacterial infections on previously damaged organs, as well as the bacteria's ability to survive at extreme low temperatures and respiratory diversity (Hau). These things combined make the bacteria hard to detect until after the death of an organism, and hard to kill without the use of antibiotics. Shewanella putrefaciens is also known to cause the rotting smell associated with dead fish because of its production of trimethylamines (McNair)


    [Photo of- Open lesion of Shewanella putrefaciens on a carp taken by Environment Agency, UK.]


    Impact on Humans

    Shewanella putrefaciens as a humans pathogen is very rare. If it does effect human health it is typically only seen to show effects in combination eith other bacterial infections such as E.coli, pneumonia, and streptococcus. Infections form Shewanella putrfaciens mainly occur in soft tissue such as skin, intra-abdominal areas, or in the blood (Pagani) (McNair).

    Shewanella putrefaciens is a main food spoilage bacteria in marine fish, which in turn can effect human health, but also creates a problem for the food industry. It also posses an even larger problem for the food industry because of its ability to form film on the food processing equipment that is mainly made of stainless steal. Studies done by Applied and Environmental Microbiology society looked deeper into this problem and the possibility that Shewanella Putrefaciens colonies on the equipment may be the source of further bacterial pollution while also causing corrosion of the equipment itself. The persistence of Shewanella putrefaciens colonies on the equipment, even after dissenfection, is partially due to the fact that it is a gram negative bacterium that has a higher resistance to antibiotics. The results of this study showed that although disinfection did not have a significant impact on Shewanella putrefaciens growth on the equipment, the presence of the bacteria P. fluorescens did inhibit growth. This is due to the fact Shewanella putrefaciens tends to grow in "microbial communities" where other bacteria is part of the film formed. When P. fluoresens is present in microbial film with Shewanella putrefaciens it outcompetes and limits its growth (Bagge).


    Conclusion

    Shewanella putrefaciens is also well known for its use in biotechnology. Shewanella putrefaciens is a metal reducing, facilitate anaerobe and this quality contributes to its ability to be used in biotechnology. It is used as many things from a bioremediate of chlorinated compounds to a radionuclide and a biocatalyst. Its ability to be a biocatalyst and to reduce iron has lead to interesting research done with Shewanella putrefaciens being used in fuel cells. This research is being done at the Korean Institute of Science and Technologyand has shown that Shewanella has the ability to be used in a fuel cell as part of a biosensor for lactate. This means with the presence of Shewanella putrefaciens as a electronon acceptor and metal reducer of iron their was a change of charge detected in the fuel cell when lactate was added. This presence of an electrochemical reaction could mean a lot of things for the use of Shewanella putrefaciens in fuel cells later on (Kim). The bacteria has also been shown to derive energy by reducing uranium, manganese, Vanadium, and Technetium (Min)."
    Last edited by MikeM; 04-18-2016 at 08:59 AM. Reason: typos
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  6. #6
    Tosai Alexandre's Avatar
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    Hi,
    I heard that ozon is very effective against this bacteria, so I would like to buy an Uvozone . What do you think about this ?

    IMPORTANT :

    If you want to know the weaknesses (or resistances) of this bacteria : Here are the results of the sample and the antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
    It's wright in french but I think that you can understain ( if you need a translation, tell me and i'll do it).
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-reiko-antibio-2.jpg   Emergent pathogen bacteria : Shewanella putrefaciens-reiko-antibio.jpg  

  7. #7
    Daihonmei MikeM's Avatar
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    The use of ozone has been much discussed in the hobby as a means for eliminating dissolved organics and thereby reducing the need for water changes. Concerns have been with the fact that ozone is dangerous and must be used with great care. For the typical hobbyist, the risks, cost and work involved outweigh the benefits. There are threads discussing ozone on this board. I am generally opposed to ozone use, primarily because few people will do what is necessary to address the risks in a consistent, effective manner. The risks are to the health of the hobbyist exposed to ozone, to the koi if exposed to even residual amounts on a continual basis and the degrading of plastics and sealants used in and around the pond (pipes, liners, plumbing fixtures, seals within pumps, etc., etc. ) Nonetheless, there are systems that can be used to minimize/avoid these risks if used in a professional manner with constant attention to safety.

    Elimination of pathogens has not been a focus within the hobby. Whether an ozone system would be useful for this purpose in practical operation is something that would require some study. I would want to see such a system in actual operation and get a hands-on training of what is required for maintenance.

    I am wondering if the heartbreak of this particular infection is causing an over-reaction. There was mention of concern that Shewanella is in the water supply. Unless water is being pumped directly from a stream/lake, this seems unlikely to me. The treatment of water for human consumption would eliminate Shewanella as well as other microbes. If the water source is a natural water body with no pre-treatment, it could be carrying all sorts of pathogens, including every sort of parasite known to infect fish. I think you would have experienced all of the koi having problems if this were the case. From what I have read, Shewanella putrefasciens is virtually omnipresent, although it is fairly rare for it to be identified as causing a serious infection. Just as there are aeromonas and pseudomonas species in every pond, it seems likely to me that Shewanella is also present. Our fish do not become infected because their natural immune system protects them. But, when there is injury or parasite infestation, there is an opportunity for harmful bacteria to invade. We minimize this risk through maintenance of water quality (which enhances the immune system) and removal of the debris and waste that provide food and habitat for the pathogens. The risk to our koi increases when their immune systems are not functioning well, such as the stress of extended periods of cold. I suspect that the Shewanella involved in this infection has long been present in the pond, with all the koi exposed, but suffering no harm. Then some combination of factors came together so that this one Sanke could not resist it, perhaps some slight abrasion at a time when her immune response weak due to cold. The pathogen was able to get a foothold and thrive, just as is so frequently described in regard to aeromonas/pseudomonas infections in koi literature.

    Bumping a couple of old threads concerning ozone.
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  8. #8
    Tosai Alexandre's Avatar
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    Hi,
    I would like to buy this ozone system. It looks simple and very safety for a 11m3 pond.
    UV Ozone System (Low Pressure)

  9. #9
    MCA
    MCA is offline
    Honmei MCA's Avatar
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    To decide to use ozone or any other oxidizer, you should have a target ORP value and a way to measure the achieve ORP value. What ORP value are you planning to target for 24/7 operation?
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  10. #10
    Tosai Alexandre's Avatar
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    It's done, I bought it today and I will install it tomorrow. Everything is integrated in the system and it is completely independent (self-regulation).

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